Journal of Research for Christianity in China
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Journal of Research for Christianity in China (Semi-Annual, ISSN: 2325-9914) is published jointly by the Center of Chrisitanity and China in Los Angeles, USA and the Center for the Study of Religion and Chinese Society, Shanghai University, China. This journal was founded in 2013. Submissions or any comments should be sent to this email address: ChrisianStudies@163.com. More information, please visit this website: ChineseCS.cc.
Daniel L. LI (Christianity and China Research Center, Los Angeles)
主编Editor in Chief：
Qinghe XIAO (Shanghai Unviersity)
Qiang YU (Zhejiang Academy of Social Sciences)
Rui PENG (Nanchang University)
Jianbin GUO (Southwest Minzu University)
Huaisi SONG (Shaanxi Major Catholic Seminary)
Yilin XIE (Jinan University)
Wang XI (Peking University)
Li NIE (South Central University for Nationalities)
Nathanael WANG (Chung Yuan Christian University)
Vicky Lianghui SUN (University of Notre Dame)
Yi WANG (Shanghai University)
Journal of Research for Christianity in China (Semi-Annual, ISSN: 2325-9914)
No. 17, December 2021
摘要：中国著名基督教哲学家、神学家、教育家、文学家赵紫宸（T. C. Chao，1888-1979），堪称倡导“基督教中国化”的思想先驱。关于赵紫宸所阐发的“中国化基督教”思想，虽然以往海内外学者早就有所关注，但尚未加以系统化的专题研究。本文则试图在以往研讨的基础上深化一层，即聚焦赵紫宸“中国化基督教”思想的问题意识，深究其思想的逻辑进路，发掘其思想的时代意义。
T. C. Chao's thoughts on "Sinicization of Christianity"
ZHANG Zhigang (Peking University)
Abstract: T. C. Chao (1888-1979), a famous Chinese Christian philosopher, theologian, educator, and literary scholar, is a pioneer in advocating the "Sinicization of Christianity. Although scholars at home and abroad have long paid attention to the thought of "Sinicization of Christianity" expounded by T. C. Chao, it has not been systematically studied. In this paper, we try to deepen one layer on the basis of previous researches, that is, to focus on the problematic consciousness of T. C. Chao's thought of "Sinicization of Christianity", to investigate the logical progression of his thought, and to discover the significance of his thought in the times.
Keywords: Western Christianity, Authentic Christianity, Chinese culture, Chinese nation, Sinicization of Christianity
The Theme of Sabbath in the Bible: A Biblical Theology Approach
Donald Wang（Trinity International University, USA）
Abstract: The theme of Sabbath is an important area of overlooked research. This paper focuses on the theme of Sabbath. My thesis is that the theme of Sabbath develops, progresses, intensifies in the Old Testament, and how is ultimately fulfilled in Jesus Christ in the New Testament, especially in Matthew 11:28-30 and Hebrews 3-4.
Keywords: Sabbath, Creation, Redemption, Typology of Sabbath, Ultimate Rest
Comments on Contemporary Political Theology
AN Ximeng (Shanxi University)
Abstract: The article belongs to a fragment of the development history of Christian theology. Political theology can be traced back to the Stoics.In the twentieth century Schmidt restored political theology.Political theology is still the European trend of thought.European society was reformed through various waves of criticism.Themes of political theology gained renewed attention in the 1960s.The emphasis on politics is once again having an impact.Modern political theology puts forward a new view on the relationship between theology and politics.Political theology is different from forcing theologians and pastors to "talk politics".Modern political theology pays more attention to this side than to the imagination of the other side.More concrete than abstract.Public more than private.Practice is more than speculation.History is more concrete than metaphysical.The contemplation of suffering is greater than the contemplation of heaven.The former political theology identifies with the present situation, while the new political theology is critical, practical, revolutionary, rebellious, liberating, radical and public theology.Political theology has accepted the critical, revolutionary, practical and public nature of Marxism.They take Marx's religious criticism seriously.It was also critical of church institutions and theological traditions."Deprivatization" is also the creed of all political theologians.Moltmann stresses the distinction between old and new political theology.The old, outdated political theology is called political religion.The "submission" of religion to the secular society is the political religion that takes religion as its handmaid.On the other hand, European political theology lacks the practical social consequences of the gun-toting priests of liberation theology.
Keywords: political alienation, social liberation, hope, secular practice, criticism of the future of the world
Christianity and the Origin of Sun Yat-sen's Early Thought on Modernization
CHEN Caijun (Jinan University)
Abstract: Sun Yat-sen completed his secondary and higher education in Hong Kong during the years from 1883 to 1892. This period, in which Sun was aged 17 to 26, represented an essential stage for his intellectual accumulation and the formation of his ideology. Sun converted to Christianity in Hong Kong due to his admiration for modern Western civilization and scientific technology. In addition, he devoted himself to studying Western learning during his university years since he knew that Christianity was the root of Western civilization. Moreover, he developed the idea of reforming the old feudal system in China by identifying himself with the Western constitutional monarchy. These are the fundamental rationales that shaped Sun’s thoughts. Instead of armed revolution, the core of Sun's early thinking was to save the country and the people, and bring China onto the road to modernization, with specific methods of "improvement" and "innovation.
Key words: Sun Yat-sen, Christianity, innovation and national salvation, modernization
摘要：视觉艺术（visual arts）在马丁·路德（Martin Luther, 1483-1546）的神学阐释及实践中是不可忽略的。在1522年至1545年间，路德针对宗教改革期间的圣像破坏运动，提出了他的神学阐释来表明对视觉艺术的思考和理解；从1519年至1544年，路德参与过的视觉艺术作品直观而具体地反应了路德的视觉艺术理念，从中也可以看到他的态度和立场。本文根据路德对视觉艺术的理论和参与，来分析并解释其历史背景、神学依据并附带一些评论，最后关联路德的视觉艺术与基督教中国化这两个因素，从基督教视觉艺术的题材和形式两方面进行探讨。
Matin Luther’s view on Visual Arts and Sinicization
CHEN Qirui (University of Helsinki, Finland)
Abstract: Martin Luther (1483-1546) never uses the term “visual arts”, which, remains indispensable for his theological articulation and practice. Since 1522, the Iconoclsam under the Spiritualists had caused social turbulence in Wittenberg and the other places in Europe. Luther set forth his view on visual arts defending against that radical deed. Through the Biblical interpretations and theological treatises, Luther had made the social situation stable successfully. In Luther’s discussion from 1522 to 1545, we find his dialectical, Biblical and theological attitude and position on visual arts. For Luther, visual arts could be used in church life as far as they were regarded as a way of understanding belief, rather than al. According to Luther’s view on visual arts, this paper displays the analysis of his historical backdrop, theological foundation and some assessment, as well as applies Luther’s on visual arts into the modern context in China. In doing so, it demonstrates that Martin Luther’s idea of visual arts can be utilized for the exploration of Christian Sinicization today.
Key words: Martin Luther, Iconoclasm, visual arts, Chinese Christianity
摘要：宣道会（Christian and Missionary Alliance）是十九世纪末美国基督教传教运动的产物，自该传教组织成立伊始，就派遣传教士开拓在中国的福音工场。宣道会在华确立传教策略，于中国划分出不同范围的传教区，其中华中教区是本文叙述的主线，拟建大小不同规模的传教站，展开游行布道、个人友谊和办学校来传播基督信仰等，普遍的工作与诸多在华传教团体事务有着共同点。他们既有一种普世基督教传教运动的精神，也具在本地教会的实践经验。传教士与本地信徒，在乡村、家庭、教堂等固定地方，从了解、接受到改宗基督信仰，有着稳定且长期的关系网。尽管因改宗需付出一定的人际、社会成本代价，他们却依靠教会的教徒关系及宗教经验，得到基督徒内部的粘聚力。再则，随着华中宣道会重视巡回布道，传教士抱持基督再临前，迫切拯救人灵魂的宗教信念，开拓过去难以突破的湖南地区传教站，从而实现扮演开路先锋的角色，即是首个进驻湖南省的基督教差会。这种发展模式不但符合传教士开荒“未得之地”的期望，而且标志着华中宣道会具有直接布道的差传路线。
Reclamation and Establishment: The Missionary Route and Belief Practice of The Christian and Missionary Alliance in the Late Qing Dynasty in the Diocese of Central China (1892-1899)
Buxiao NI (China Graduate School of Theology, Hong Kong)
Abstract: The Christian and Missionary Alliance is the product of the American missionary movement in the late nineteenth century. Since the establishment of the missionary organization, it has sent missionaries to open up gospel workshops in China. The Christian and Missionary Alliance has established missionary strategies in China and divided different mission areas in China. Among them, the Central China mission area is the main line described in this article. It plans to build mission stations of different sizes, carry on parade sermons, build personal friendships, and run schools to spread the Christian faith. Its general work has something in common with the affairs of many missionary organizations in China. They not only have the spirit of the universal Christian missionary movement, but also have practical experience in the local church. Missionaries built a stable and long-term relationship network with the local believers in fixed places such as villages, homes, churches, etc., from understanding, accepting to converting to Christianity. Although they had to pay a certain amount of interpersonal and social costs due to conversion, they relied on the church’s religious relationship and religious experience to gain internal cohesion among Christians. Furthermore, as the Christian and Missionary Alliance in Central China paid more attention to traveling preaching, missionaries held the religious belief of saving souls before Christ’s second coming, and opened up missionary stations in Hunan that were difficult to break through in the past, thus realizing the role of pioneering pioneers, which is the first Christian Mission Association stationed in Hunan Province. This development model not only meets the missionaries' expectations of "unreached land", but also marks that the Christian and Missionary Alliance has a direct evangelistic route in Central China.
Keywords: Christian and Missionary Alliance, Central China, Missionary Route, Belief Practice
摘要：第二次鸦片战争后，琼州被开辟为通商口岸，此后来琼外国人日益增多，成为影响近代海南社会变迁的重要因素。1881年，第一名基督教（新教）传教士冶基善（Carl C. Jeremiassen）来到海南，基督教（新教）在琼传教事业由此开始。初期，传教士以人口集中的汉族聚居区为根据地开展传教事业，同时对海南内陆的黎苗族聚居区开展调查。随着影响力的日益扩大，传教士进而采取一系列的传教活动，将基督教传入海南的黎族、苗族聚居区。受其影响，海南黎族与苗族在宗教信仰、文化教育与医疗观念方面均发生了不同程度的变化。这种变化展现了异质文化影响下，黎、苗两族社会文化变迁的近代化趋向。
Christianity and Social and Cultural Changes in Li and Miao Settlements in Hainan in Modern Times
TAN Hui (Hunan Normal University)
Abstract: After the Second Opium War, Qiongzhou was opened as a trading port. Since then, the number of foreigners in Qiong has increased, which has become an important factor affecting the social changes in modern Hainan. In 1881, the first Protestant missionary, Carl C. Jeremiassen, came to Hainan, and the Protestant missionary career in Qiong began. In the early days, missionaries carried out missionary activities based on the densely populated areas of Han nationality, and at the same time carried out investigations on the inland areas of Li and Miao nationality in Hainan. With the increasing influence, the missionaries then adopted a series of missionary activities to introduce Christianity into the settlements of the Li and Miao nationalities in Hainan. Affected by this, the Hainan Li and Miao nationalities have undergone varying degrees of changes in religious beliefs, cultural education, and medical concepts. This change shows the modernization trend of the social and cultural changes of the Li and Miao ethnic groups under the influence of heterogeneous culture.
Keywords: Hainan in modern times, Christianity, Li and Miao settlements, social changes
The Evolution and Synthesis of the Concept of Death Between the Old Testament and the New Testament
WANG Zhijun (Langfang Normal University)
Abstract: There is no consistent understanding the concept of death throughout The Bible. In the attitude of life and the concept of death, there are many contradictions between the Old and New Testament. The fact that Jesus was Christ and died and was resurrected transmutes the concept of death. Christians have raised hopes of resurrection and eternal life through faith in Jesus, who rose from the dead. In the encounter with the death of Jesus, the concept of death in the Old Testament changes and synthesizes.
Key Words: The Bible, Old Testament, New Testament, Faith, The Concept of Death
A Review of the Research on the Second Generation of Protestant Effort in Translating the Chinese Bible
ZHOU Geshan (Shanghai University)
Abstract: On the eve of the First Opium War, a new Chinese Bible was going to come out, later known as the "Medhurst's version", "Gützlaff's version", or "quartet's version". It is the very first cross-organizational collaboration of protestant missionaries, who are the so-called "second generation of Bible translators", to render the Holy Scriptures in favor of the local Chinese language rather than the original text. Certain revised editions of this version would thereafter become the sources of the Delegates' and Taiping Bible respectively whereby its influences in Chinese biblical translation extend. Despite such watershed role, thematic discussions have only occasionally been done, almost all of which scatter in intersections. Therefore, through an in-depth literature review, this article intends not only to outline the history and the extant text of the "second generation" of the protestant Chinese Bible that might shed light on further inquiry but also to offer some explanation for why it is usually out of focus in the study of the Chinese Bible.
Key words: the second generation of Chinese biblical translation, Medhurst, Gützlaff, quartet, Bridgman, Morrison