Journal of Research for Christianity in China
This journal is collected in AIRITI Library and indexed in DOI database.
Journal of Research for Christianity in China (Semi-Annual, ISSN: 2325-9914) is published jointly by the Center of Chrisitanity and China in Los Angeles, USA and the Center for the Study of Religion and Chinese Society, Shanghai University, China. This journal was founded in 2013. Submissions or any comments should be sent to this email address: ChrisianStudies@163.com. More information, please visit this website: ChineseCS.cc.
Daniel L. LI (Christianity and China Research Center, Los Angeles)
主编Editor in Chief：
Qinghe XIAO (Shanghai Unviersity)
Qiang YU (Shanghai University)
Rui PENG (Nanchang University)
Ping LIU (Fudan University)
Jianbin GUO (Southwest Minzu University)
Huaisi SONG (Hubei Minzu Universtiy)
Yilin XIE (Jinan University)
Wang XI (Peking University)
Li NIE (South Central University for Nationalities)
Nathanael WANG (Chung Yuan Christian University)
Vicky Lianghui SUN (University of Notre Dame)
Yi WANG (Shanghai University)
Journal of Research for Christianity in China (Semi-Annual, ISSN: 2325-9914)
No. 18, June 2022
From the Editor
特 稿... 6
Holy Spirit and Ghost：A Brief Introduction to Christianity and Communism (LI Ling)
Family-State Mentality and Chinese Christian Studies (LI Xiangping)
A Review on Christian Political Theology in the Twentieth Century (AN Ximeng)
Sage and Perfection:A Comparison Between the Human Nature & Moral Cultivation Theory of Confucian Culture and the Christian Theory of Human Nature & Salvation (TANG Shiwen)
The Historical Changes of the Image of Toyohiko Kagawa in China during the Period of the Republic of China (1925-1941): Centered on the Report of The China Press (YU Lingfeng)
A Study on the Image of Missionaries to China in the Literature in the 20th Century (WANG Lijun)
The Interpretive History of Di’s Meaning: The Misreading in Ming and Qing Dynasties and Uncovering of Modern Scholars (CUI Liguo)
The Collision of Centuries of Chinese Literature and Christian Culture (ZHANG Xiaoying)
A New Inquiry into the Dialogue between Catholicism and Taoism’s Views of Life: Beginning with the Taoist Narrative of “to be Immortal through Death” (HUANG Wei)
Deus and God，the Dilemma and Reflection of the Interculture Contact (GAO Xing)
Joseph’s Tear: A Reading from Postcolonial Studies and Ethnicity Research Perspectives (WU Chi-Te)
Announcements from the Editors
Holy Spirit and Ghost：A Brief Introduction to Christianity and Communism
LI Ling (The Center for Christiantity and China, LA., USA)
Abstract: This article discusses the relationship between Christianity and communism. Firstly, this article begins with a review of the origins of communism. Then, the article will review the characteristics of early Christianity's "communism" and conclude with a definition of Christian communism. The author argues that Christian communism is an ideal social form gradually formed from the early church's economic practice of "communal sharing" in the face of the widening gap between the rich and the poor and the increasing conflicts between social classes due to social injustice. This paper is useful for considering the relationship between Christianity and communism.
Keywords: Holy Spirit, Ghost, Communism
Family-State Mentality and Chinese Christian Studies
LI Xiangping (Eastchina Normal University)
Abstract: This article is an online lecture paper. The article discusses the traditional and modern family-state mentality and Chinese Christian studies. First, it analyzes what is the family-state mentality. The family-state mentality refers to an ultimate emotional, ultimate personality mentality characterized by the Chinese divine archetype. Next, Locke's critique of patriarchal-kingly power is discussed; again, Bellah's comparative study on the Confucian-Jewish father-son relationship is sorted out. Finally, it analyzes the reverential habit and the familial mentality, pointing out that the familial mentality converts its special logic from familial power to specific individuals, souls, spirits, and emotions, so that not only the familial category of mentality contributes to the sanctity of individuals, but also to the ethics of individual sanctity and the equality and freedom of individual sanctity. This article argues that the family mentality transforms its special logic from the family power to the specific individual, soul, spirit, and emotion, so that the family-like mentality not only contributes to the sanctity of the individual, but also to the ethics of the individual sanctity and the equality and freedom of the individual sanctity.
Keywords: Family-State Mentality, Christian Studies, Locke, Bellah, Habits of Reverent
A Review on Christian Political Theology in the Twentieth Century
AN Ximeng (Shanxi University)
Abstract: This article belongs to a fragment of the development history of Christian theological thought. Political theology goes back to the Stoics. Schmitt revived political theology in the 20th century. Political theology remains the current of thought in Europe. European society has been reinvented by various waves of criticism. The themes of political theology were revived in the 1960s. The emphasis on the political sphere is once again having an impact. Modern political theology puts forward a new view on the relationship between theology and politics. Political theology is not the same as forcing theologians and pastors to "talk politics". Modern political theology pays more attention to this side than to the reverie of the world beyond. More concrete than abstract. More public than private. Practice is more than speculation. History is more concrete than metaphysics. There is more contemplation of suffering than of heaven. The former political theology identifies with the status quo, while the new political theology is critical, practical, revolutionary, rebellious, liberating, radical and public.Political theology accepts the critical, revolutionary, practical and public nature of Marxism.They take Marx's criticism of religion seriously. It also criticizes church institutions and theological traditions. "Depersonalization" is also the creed of all political theologians. Moltmann emphasized the differentiation between old and new political theology. The old outdated political theology is called political religion. The "submission" of religion to the secular society is the political religion that takes religion as its handmaid. On the other hand, European political theology also lacks the practical social steps of the gun-toting priests of liberation theology.
Keywords: Political theology, Christianity, Marxism, Moltmann
Sage and Perfection:
A Comparison Between the Human Nature & Moral Cultivation Theory of Confucian Culture and the Christian Theory of Human Nature & Salvation
TANG Shiwen (Zhejiang Theological Seminary)
Abstract: The theory of human nature is the starting point and theoretical foundation for the moral cultivation of Confucian culture and Christian salvation. Different acknowledgement of the theory of human nature will inevitably lead to different understandings of the theory of moral cultivation and salvation. This article attempts to compare the human nature and moral cultivation theory of Confucian culture with Christian theory of human nature and redemption and find their similarities and differences. The article will discuss the issue from three aspects: The first is to analyze the theory of human nature and moral cultivation of Confucian culture. Mencius of Confucianism believes that human nature is inherently good, if only one retrieves the goodness of human nature and cultivates it, one can become a sage. The Confucian Xunzi believes that human nature is inherently evil, through human efforts of turning evil into good, one can become a sage. The second aspect is to analyze the Christian theory of human nature and redemption. Christianity insists that at the beginning of the creation, human nature is good, but since Adam and Eve’s fall, the first ancestors of humankind who were tempted by the devil to abuse their free will, the evil thoughts have arisen in human nature. Human nature became a mixture of good and evil, causing people to be incapable of doing good. Only by relying on the salvation of Jesus Christ, one can be released from the bondage of sin; and through the indwelling and sanctification of the Holy Spirit, and the continuous efforts of humankind, one can achieve perfection. The third aspect is to compare the theory of human nature and moral cultivation in Confucian culture with the theory of human nature and redemption in Christianity. And it points out that the Christian theory of human nature and redemption can make up for the lack of the concept of sin in Confucian culture, and it can fulfill the moral ideals of Confucian culture by the redemption of Christ. Generally speaking, Confucian culture does not have the concept of original sin and redemption. Instead, it affirms the goodness in human nature and believes that people can save themselves. Christianity insists that since the fall of the ancestors of humankind, there is both good and evil in human nature. Since the evil is the sinful nature of humankind, so human beings cannot get rid of this sinful nature by themselves and be in need of Christ’s salvation. One cannot save oneself! One can only be saved by Jesus Christ. After being saved, one still needs to work hard. And with God's help, one can reach perfection finally. Confucian culture is too optimistic about human nature, emphasizing that self-salvation can be achieved through moral cultivation, it lacks the concept of sin and salvation. Christian theory of human nature and redemption can make up for the shortcomings of Confucian culture, and provide people with a belief resource and internal motivation to fulfill the moral ideals of Confucian culture, thereby contribute to the construction of Chinese ethics and morality for the nation.
Keywords: Theory, Human Nature, Moral Cultivation, Salvation/Redemption, Sage, Perfection
摘要：本文以The China Press（《大陆报》）为中心，详细整理了《大陆报》中关于日本社会运动家、基督教领袖贺川丰彦的58篇报道，探讨了贺川在中国评价的历史变迁及其在中国的交友情况。本文主要分三个时期探讨《大陆报》中关于贺川的报道。其时间顺序分为：1)1925年首次报道到九一八事变；2)九一八事变到七七卢沟桥事变; 3)七七卢沟桥事变以后。重点探究了1930年贺川与上海美国同学会的交流，揭示了贺川构建中日美交流脉络的过程。同时，分析了1934年贺川就日本在中国的行动对中国人道歉及《大陆报》的看法，以及1936年贺川在美国与中国基督教领袖的意见对立。通过分析贺川研究中未被使用的《大陆报》中关于贺川报道,探究贺川与中国基督教领袖的竞合关系，不仅填补了贺川研究的空白，而且有利于探究日本基督教领袖在近代中日交流史中所做出的努力，为探究东北亚基督教交流史提供了新的视角。
The Historical Changes of the Image of Toyohiko Kagawa in China during the Period of the Republic of China (1925-1941): Centered on the Report of The China Press
YU Lingfeng (Anhui University)
Abstract: This article compiled 58 reports of The China Press about the Japanese social activist and Christian leader Who is called Toyohiko Kgawa in The China Press in detail, exploring the historical changes in the evaluation of Kagawa and his friendship situation in China. The article mainly discussed the report about Kagawa in the China Press in three periods as follow: 1) The first reported time to the Mukden Incident(1925-1931); 2) the Mukden Incident to the Lugou Bridge Incident (1931-1937); 3) After the Lugou Bridge Incident (1937-1941). First of all, this papaer focused on the exchanges between Kagawa and the Shanghai American Alumni Association in 1930, revealing the process of Kagawa’ effort to build the context of Sino-Japanese-American communication. Secondly, The paper analyzed Kagawa’s apology to the Chinese for Japan's actions in China and expoled views of The China Press on him. In addition, This papaer investigated the oppositive relationship between Kagawa and Chinese Christian leaders in the United States in 1936. By analyzing the reports of The China Press on Kagawa, not only filled the gaps in Kagawa’s study, but also helped to explore the role of Japanese Christian leaders’ efforts to peace in modern times. The efforts made in the history of Sino-Japanese exchanges have provided a new perspective for exploring the history of Christian exchanges in Northeast Asia.
Keywords: Toyohiko Kagawa, The China Press, Sino-Japanese Relation, the Republic of China era
A Study on the Image of Missionaries to China in the Literature in the 20th Century
WANG Lijun (Fujian Normal University)
Abstract：Various missionary images have appeared in the literary works of the 20th century. As a group of foreign images, the missionary images in each work have special significance. By systematically combing and analyzing the images of missionaries in the literary works of the 20th century, the author classifies them into three categories: devout and kind-hearted humanitarians, insidious and hypocritical aggressors, and Christians with a combination of Secularity and religion, and concludes that the differences in the image creation of missionaries are related to the writers' personal experience and their spiritual beliefs, "social collective imagination" and the background of the times.
Keywords: 20th Century, Missionaries to China, Images of Foreign Countries
The Interpretive History of Di’s Meaning:
The Misreading in Ming and Qing Dynasties and Uncovering of Modern Scholars
CUI Liguo (Sichuan Normal University)
Abstract: “Di” is an important term in Chinese culture, and its interpretation of the supreme god and personality god has gone through the process of misreading, construction, concealing and uncovering. There are controversies between ancients and moderns, as well as between China and the West, which is a concentrated history of Chinese culture suffering since Ming and Qing Dynasties.The research on the meaning of “Di” is concentrated in the fields of philology and oracle bone script. At present, there is no comprehensive investigation of the value presupposition of the social general concept on this understanding, and the interference and influence caused by the cultural integration activities of western missionaries have not been pointed out. Based on the academic history, this article points out that the true interpretation of “Di” was influenced by Term Question in the late Ming dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty, so that the character of God in the Bible was equated with the meaning of “Di” in ancient Chinese cannon, which became a widely accepted concept in Chinese society, and influenced later historians' understanding of “Di” on oracle bones. Recently, different views have been put forward on the study of the meaning of “Di” in oracle bones, and the truth of the meaning of “Di” is gradually revealed.
Keywords：“Di”, Term Question, Supreme God, Personality God, Ancestor god
The Collision of Centuries of Chinese Literature and Christian Culture
ZHANG Xiaoying (Qingdao University)
Abstract: Religion and literature are two different forms of cultural phenomena, and they are related to each other and can influence and interact with each other. From a macro perspective, Christian culture has a profound influence on literary creation, especially for the development of Western literature. The spread of Christianity in China has a long history. It can be traced back to the end of the third century AD. After the accumulation and precipitation of time, Christian culture has had many influences on Chinese local culture. Although Christian cultural thought cannot become the mainstream of Chinese literature, it cannot be denied that the collision of literature and religious culture has also promoted the development of modern and contemporary Chinese literature to a certain extent.
Keywords: Chinese literature, Christian culture, Western literature
A New Inquiry into the Dialogue between Catholicism and Taoism’s Views of Life: Beginning with the Taoist Narrative of “to be Immortal through Death”
HUANG Wei (Renmin University of China)
Abstract: Taoism and Christianity are often considered to be at the two poles of self-power v.s. other-power, present-life immortality v.s. after-life eternality, and even body v.s. soul. However, these views not only ignore the complicated theological aspects of both Taoism and Christianity but also hinder deeper dialogues between them. Begining with the Taoist narratives of “to be Immortal through Death”, this paper attempts to bridge the gap between the theology of Taoism and that of Christianity (mainly focusing on Catholicism), and to identify possible platforms for further dialogues between them: the theodicy, the theology of body, the paradox between predestinarianism and free will, and the problems of individualism, etc. These dialogues are fundamentally based on their shared beliefs with profound differences regarding the immortal or eternal life of the body which is a crucial part of their views of life. This paper concludes with a review on the history of the dialogues between Catholicism and Taoism in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, arguing that the dialogue between their views of life is the most urgent but weakest part of the current time but is believed to be in line for a new opportunity for development.
Keywords: Catholicism, Taoism, Views of Life
Deus and God，the Dilemma and Reflection of the Interculture Contact
GAO Xing (Peking University)
Abstract: The Chinese Rites Controversy includes two parts: the issue of the Translated Name and the issue of Rites. The former focuses on what vocabulary in Chinese can be used to express the concept of "Deus", the supreme God of Christianity, and thus deduces the various dilemmas in the process of cultural concept transplantation. The latter discusses whether Chinese Catholics based on the traditional ancestor worship rituals, and whether such rituals are tolerated by Christian theological concepts. Since rites is never just a cultural issue, it not only has the effect of social norms, but also contains information about power. Therefore, this article selects only the relatively pure cultural dispute in The Chinese Rites Controversy, that is, the problem of the Translated Name, thinking about the dilemma of intercultural contact. This article will demonstrate that Matteo Ricci and Niccolo Longobardi, the representatives of two typical opposing views on the problem of name translation, actually have no real confrontation, but face two dilemmas of cultural contact: language dilemma and ontological dilemma; between them The differences between the two seem to be aimed at the "technical aspect" of the translated term, but in fact it involves many ontological issues in the process of dialogue between different cultures.
Keywords: The Rites Controversy; Translated Name, Language, Ontology
Joseph’s Tear: A Reading from Postcolonial Studies and Ethnicity Research Perspectives
WU Chi-Te (National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University)
Abstract: The paper interprets the story of Joseph in Genesis using ethnicity research from a postcolonial perspective. Joseph comes from a nomadic background, yet he dreams of sheaves, which symbolize farming. This cultural mismatch kicks the story off. Then his identity as a Hebrew person is enlightened when he encounters ethnic boundary in the incident of Potiphar’s wife. He then becomes the middleman between the Egyptian empire and Jacob’s family. The whole storyline reveals Joseph as a “colonized intellectual”, with its special inner struggles and tensions. The paper then continues to discuss how the Egyptian empire tries to incorporate Jacob’s family. As a middleman, Joseph’s tear explains the consideration of a “colonized intellectual”, negotiating between the empire and the family. Joseph decides to do everything “for the survival of the family”. And this self-understanding causes him to have frictions with his brothers. He cannot be understood by them. The paper tries to show how a postcolonial reading and ethnicity research are helpful for interpreting the Bible for our time. It provides ways to approach complex relationships between the colonizers and the colonized.
Keywords: Postcolonial Studies, Ethnicity Research, Joseph, Colonized Intellectual, Middleman, Genesis, Biblical Study