宋剛:《從經典到通俗:<天主降生言行紀畧>及其清代改編本的流變》(2011)

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2014年12月6日18:07:50 评论 3,563 1854字阅读6分10秒
宋剛:《從經典到通俗:<天主降生言行紀畧>及其清代改編本的流變》
载《天主教研究學報》〈聖經的中文翻譯〉 第二期 2011 年
[摘 要] 本文以艾儒略的《天主降生言行紀畧》(1635)及其後的版本為線索,探討福音書耶穌事蹟在明清中西宗教、文化交流中被策略性地傳譯的過程。雖然此前學者對該著作進行了深入的分析和考證,但是在其後續的改編本、重刊本方面關注不足。本文在前人研究的基礎上另闢新見,首先論述艾儒略采用的“以史證經”的傳譯方法,融匯了中國史傳寫法和天主教會史料而生成一種混合型敘事體例。其後,通過對《天主降生言行紀畧》與三種清代改編本的綜合比較,本文將闡明耶穌事蹟如何逐漸脫離原來福音書的經典屬性,呈現出從經到傳、間文以圖等不同風貌,使耶穌傳這一新的敘事文體在漢語語境下得以立足繁衍,並走向本土化和通俗化。相較嚴格意義上的漢譯福音書,《天主降生言行紀畧》及其系列文本代表了一種獨具特色的合參經史、圖文結合的傳譯模式。廓清其在明清時期的演進軌跡,可以增進對早期入華天主教譯經狀況的了解,同時也有助於從中發現更多與近代譯經事業的關聯。
[ABSTRACT] By using Giulio Aleni’s Tianzhu Jiangsheng Yanxing Jilüe (A Brief Record of the Words and Deeds of the Incarnated Lord of Heaven, 1635) and later adaptations as a thread, this article explores how, and according to which strategy, the Jesus stories contained in the Four Gospels were translated into Chinese during the Ming‐Qing Sino‐Western encounter. Though Aleni’s work has been well studied by recent scholars, it seems that its later editions have not received an adequate amount of attention. This article follows a new approach that first highlights Aleni’s adaptive and syncretic method of Gospel translation, i.e., a stylistic fusion of Chinese historical writings and Christ‐centered narratives; through detailed inter‐textual comparisons between Aleni’s work and three later adaptations dating from the Qing dynasty, it is shown how the Gospel stories of Jesus’ life gradually lost their canonical nature, and became in many ways localized and popularized in accordance with the Chinese context. In comparison with other rigidly‐constrained scriptural translations, Aleni’s work and its later adaptations provide another particular type of translation characterized by its hybrid features (combination of scripture with history, and text with image). Studying the evolution of these texts during the late imperial period in China is not only beneficial to historical research; it can also facilitate the search for more connections between early and modern Chinese biblical translations.
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