黃正謙:《西學東漸之序章——明末清初耶蘇會史新論》(2010)

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《西學東漸之序章─明末清初耶蘇會史新論》
作者 黃正謙
出版社 中華書局(香港)有限公司
ISBN 9789622310568
出版日期 2010年06月
語言版本 中文(繁)
頁數 472 頁
版次 第 1 版
裝幀 平裝

http://www.cp1897.com.hk/product_info.php?BookId=9789622310568

The author received MA in SOAS and PhD in Hong Kong University.

The book is a revised/abridged verson of the author's dissertation which can be downloaded here.

十六、十七世紀在華耶穌會士之政治策略及其所傳播之宗教文化
A Critical Study of the Policies formulated and the Religious Culture disseminated by the Jesuits in China during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
http://hub.hku.hk/handle/123456789/54500

Abstract and Content:
This thesis aims to lay emphasis upon the paramount importance of the policies formulated by the Jesuits in China in the course of evangelisation during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Policies adopted by the Jesuits, including efforts of accommodating and respecting local rituals, establishing colleges and seminars, maintaining good terms with influential political entities or intellectuals and introducing western scientific accomplishment etc., play a crucial role in determining the form of dissemination of the gospels and interpreting a series of missionary activities, with profound influence also upon the practices of cultural exchange thereafter. It therefore implies that preaching in China was not merely a question of “exportation of the Bible” or “propagation of Christian faith” as such, but strategies prevailed nearly everywhere.
Contemporary research works written in Chinese on the Jesuits in China at this particular time in history have appeared in profusion in recent years. Nevertheless, they have a general propensity for neglecting the wealth of early first-hand materials written in various European languages, like Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Latin, French and German. A great deal of Jesuits’ letters and travelling notes concerning India, Japan and China edited by modern Jesuit scholars like Joseph Wicki (Documenta Indica), Josef Franz Schütte (Monumenta Historica Japoniae), Juan Ruiz-de-Medina (Documentos del Japon), John W. Witek and Joseph Sebes (Monumenta Sinica) et al. have been published successively since the latter half of the twentieth century in Rome, yet they are still being mostly forgotten in present-day Chinese scholarship. In other words, there are as yet vast uncultivated lands with regard to the subject awaiting us to explore. For instance, studies on Spanish Jesuit Francisco Javier (Francis Xavier, 1506-1552) and Italian Jesuit Alessandro Valignano (1539-1606) are strikingly scanty among Chinese research works.
This thesis is strongly characterised by extensive use of abundant materials written in the above-mentioned European languages to which Chinese scholars seldom pay sufficient heed, and to tackle multifarious questions that have never been discussed before. Added to this, scholars working on the Jesuits in China generally quote materials directly relevant to the topic, but other fields lying in the vicinity are unconsciously overlooked, notably the history of the Jesuits in Japan in early period, the history of Sino-Portuguese relations in the sixteenth century, the intellectual history during the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty and so forth. It is necessary or even obligatory to cross-examine the materials in adjacent fields so as to review history in a comparatively broad perspective before one can establish new concrete arguments. As regards the religious culture, although not posing very serious problems, from time to time researchers displayed a certain extent of racial, political or religious prejudice in their studies, which result in reaching improper conclusions in faceof salient objective reality. It is not within the realm of this paper to analyse in depth the philosophical and religious significance of Jesuits’ missionary work. Instead, critical study of historical facts and meticulous elaboration of historical progress are distinctly stressed.
目錄 ...................................................................................................................... ii
1. 序論 ………………………………………………………………………..... P. 1
1.1. 本論文之主題、內容大要、目的及方法論 ………………..….... P. 2
1.2. 日本耶穌會史與中國耶穌會史之關係 ………………............… P. 17
1.3. 以傳教士為中心之東西文化交流 …………………………….... P. 20
2. 十六、十七世紀在華耶穌會士之生平及著作叢考 ……………………... P. 23
2.1. 在華耶穌會士之漢文傳記著作 ………………………….……... P. 23
2.2. 在華耶穌會士之生平及其著作 ………………………………… P. 30
2.2.1. 沙勿略 (Francisco Javier, 1506-1552) ……………….…... P. 30
2.2.2. 范禮安 (Alessandro Valignano, 1539-1606)…………........ P. 42
2.2.3. 利瑪竇 (Matteo Ricci, 1552-1610) …………………...….. P. 52
2.2.4. 艾儒略 (Giulio Aleni, 1582-1649) ……………………...... P. 57
2.2.5. 湯若望 (Johann Adam Schall von Bell, 1592?-1666) ….… P. 63
2.2.6. 衛匡國 (Martino Martini, 1614-1661) ……………...……. P. 76
3. 耶穌會士東來之政治背景 ……………………........…………….…...…... P. 89
3.1. 耶穌會士與葡萄牙保教權之關係 ………………..…........…….. P. 89
3.2. 沙勿略與十六世紀中葡關係 ………………………………..….. P. 95
3.3. 葡萄牙國王若奧三世 (Dom João III, 1507-1557) 與耶穌會士. P. 107
3.4. 耶穌會士與戰國時代之日本 ………………………………….. P. 112
3.5. 湯若望與中國政權易替 ……………………………………….. P. 118
4. 在華耶穌會之適應政策及禮儀之爭 ……………………………….…… P. 123
4.1. 耶穌會海外傳教之積極拓展政策 ……………………….……. P. 123
4.2. 羅馬耶穌會之本質及其與遠東傳教集團性格之歧趨 ….……. P. 130
4.3. 在華耶穌會士之適應政策 ……………………………….……. P. 143
4.3.1. 適應政策概念之界定及其淵源問題 …………….....….. P. 143
4.3.2. 關於范禮安適應政策之著作 ………………………....... P. 146
4.3.3. 范禮安適應政策形成之背景 ………………………....... P. 151
4.3.4. 范禮安及第五任耶穌會總會長阿夸維瓦 (Claudio Acquaviva, 1543-1615) 與適應政策推行之關係 …...… P. 157
4.3.5. 小結:范禮安與利瑪竇所採適應政策之比較 ……....... P. 165
4.4. 禮儀之爭新考 ………………………………………………...... P. 176
4.4.1. 禮儀之爭之中西文文獻 ……………………………....... P. 176
4.4.2. 西方教廷傳信部 (Propagatio Fidei) 之成立與在華耶穌會士之關係 ………………………....…….. P. 179
4.4.3. 耶穌會士內訌:湯若望時代之曆獄 (1644-1670) …..... P. 181
4.4.4. 衛匡國與禮儀之爭 …………………………………....... P. 187
4.4.5. 小結:總論禮儀之争之性質 ………............................... P. 190
5. 羅馬耶穌會之教育及本地教士培訓 ....................................................... P. 193
5.1. 羅馬耶穌會之教育政策 .............................................................. P. 194
5.2. 耶穌會羅馬學院 (Collegio Romano) 之起源及其特點 ........... P. 195
5.3. 耶穌會《教學規程》(Ratio Studiorum) 釋義及其形成之過程 P. 202
5.4. 關於耶穌會教學之評論 .............................................................. P. 209
5.5. 葡萄牙科英布拉大學講義 (Conimbricensis) ............................. P. 214
5.6. 范禮安主導下之東方耶教教士培訓 .......................................... P. 217
5.7. 遠東耶穌會士所辦本地學校之語言及人文課程 ...................... P. 229
6. 在華耶穌會士之上層傳教策略 ................................................................ P. 238
6.1. 在華耶穌會士於日本之上層傳教策略....................................... P. 240
6.1.1. 沙勿略方針及其遠東傳教計劃考辨 .............................. P. 240
6.1.2. 范禮安與日本天正年間 (1573-1591) 遣歐使節(Prima Legatione Japonica in Europam, 1582) .................. P. 250
6.2. 在華耶穌會士於中國之知識傳教策略 ..................................... P. 257
6.2.1. 從利瑪竇之《交友論》至衛匡國之《逑友編》............ P. 257
6.2.2. 世界地理之引入及其對明清間中國學術界之影響 ...... P. 261
6.2.2.1.《職方外紀》書題及其對《四庫》
〈史部.地理類〉編次之影響 ....................... P. 262
6.2.2.2. 清代史籍文集與世界地理 ............................... P. 279
6.2.2.3. 明清間中國知識界對 “大西洋” 之理解 ........ P. 292
6.2.3. 西方天文學之引入及曆法改革 ...................................... P. 297
6.2.3.1. 十六、十七世紀西方天文學 ........................... P. 297
6.2.3.2. 《崇禎曆書》及《西洋新法曆書》之編修 ... P. 303
6.2.4. 小結:耶穌會士知識傳教於中國及日本受容之大較 ... P. 316
7. 在華耶穌會士所傳播之宗教文化 ............................................................. P. 319
7.1. 在華耶穌會士之宗教文化探源 .................................................. P. 321
7.1.1. 北堂藏書初探 .................................................................. P. 321
7.1.1.1. 北堂圖書館小史 ................................................ P. 321
7.1.1.2. 北堂藏書之價值 ................................................ P. 323
7.1.1.3. 北堂藏書內容舉隅 ............................................ P. 325
7.1.2. 耶穌會士與伊斯蘭文化 ................................................... P. 328
7.1.2.1. 耶穌會草創與伊斯蘭文化之關係 .................... P. 328
7.1.2.2. 耶穌會士與印度莫臥兒帝國(Mughal Empire, 1526- 1857) ............................. P. 335
7.1.2.3. 在華耶穌會士之神學與伊斯蘭哲學之關係 .... P. 338
7.1.3. 耶穌會士與文藝復興文化 .............................................. P. 345
7.2. 在華耶穌會士對天主教教理及其相關文獻之譯介 ................. P. 351
7.2.1. 明清間天主教文獻與《聖經》之漢譯 .......................... P. 351
7.2.2. 在華耶穌會士對西方經院哲學之譯介 .......................... P. 355
7.2.3. 在華耶穌會士所云 “天學” 之含義 ............................... P. 362
7.3. 在華耶穌會士 “補儒易佛” 原則 .............................................. P. 366
7.3.1. “闢邪” 與 “破邪” 小考 ............................................... P. 366
7.3.2. 天主教與佛教論爭之要點 .............................................. P. 373
7.3.3. 在華耶穌會士之補儒論 .................................................. P. 386
8. 結論 ............................................................................................................. P. 396
附錄一:
費賴之 (Louis Pfister, 1833-1891) 《在華耶穌會士列傳及書目》Notices biographiques et bibliographiques sur les Jésuites de l’ancienne mission de Chine 1551-1773 漢譯本兩種試評 ................................................................. P. 400
附錄二:
《北堂書目》〈序〉漢譯 (Préface de Catalogue de la Bibliothèque du Pe-t’ang) ........................................................................................................... P. 404
參考書目 ......................................................................................................... P. 426
1. 漢文書籍 ............................................................................................. P. 426
1.1 古籍或原始資料 ..................................................................... P. 426
1.2 漢譯文獻或當代漢文研究著作 ............................................. P. 434
2. 日文書籍 ............................................................................................. P. 444
3. 歐洲語文書籍 ..................................................................................... P. 447
3.1 十九世紀以前出版著作 ......................................................... P. 447
3.2 以歐洲語文所撰中國及日本耶穌會士書信或報告(今以縮微膠卷形式保存) ...................................................... P. 453
3.3 屬Monumenta Historica Societatis Iesu 系列出版之著作..... P. 455
3.4 屬Bibliotheca Instituti Historici Societatis Iesu .................. P. 458
系列出版之著作
3.5 歐洲語文辭書或目錄 ............................................................ P. 459
3.6 當代歐洲語文研究著作 ........................................................ P. 461
4. 參考論文 ............................................................................................ P. 478
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