夏伯嘉:《明末至清中叶天主教西文文献中的中国:文献分布与应用讨论》(2010)

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夏伯嘉:《明末至清中叶天主教西文文献中的中国:文献分布与应用讨论》,载《复旦学报(社会科学版)》5(2010):10-18。

[摘要]本文探讨各个天主教修道会在明、清传教的有关文献,尤其深入讨论了耶稣会文献的种类、特征与现有的分布情况。除了讨论西方传教文献对个别明、清
史题目的重要性外,本文亦表列了里斯本Ajuda图书馆与罗马耶稣会历史档案馆有关中国文件的现存情况。
[关键词] 天主教 传教士 明代 清代

Abstract:This paper discusses extant Catholic missionary sources for
the study of the history of China from the Late Ming to the mid-Qing
period. It offers a brief survey of documents generated by
Franciscans, Dominicans, the Missionsétrangères de Paris, and
discusses in greaterdetail the historical records associatedwith the
Jesuits: their genre, generation, characteristics, and extant
distribution. It discusses the particular area ofMing-Qing history
that are especially well documented by missionary sources; and it
offers a guide to users for sources related to China in the Biblioteca
juda in Lisbon and the Archivum Romanum Siocietatis Iesu in Rome.
Key words:Jesuits; Christian missionaries; Ming Dynasty; Qing Dynasty
胡成:《何以心系中国―――基督教医疗传教士与地方社会(1835―1911)》,载《近代史研究》4(2010):16-33。

内容提要 在近代来华的基督教医疗传教士的记述中较多地记载了他们初到一地,虽曾遇到当地士绅和官府的排斥,却也得到一些普通民众的热心帮助;随着熟悉
和了解程度的加深,他们与中国地方社会、普通民众多能成为和睦相处乃至相扶相助的邻里和街坊。此外,由于基督教医疗传教士在华的社会生活条件优于西方,
医疗工作得到当地社会和普通民众的高度尊敬和慷慨捐助,致使他们很多人“心系中国”。在这个意义上,基督教医疗传教士在中国社会取得成功,并非仅由于西
方近代医学在治疗方面的优越及其个人的奉献精神,还在于中国作为一个高度世俗化的社会,普通民众的质朴、良善和地方社会的慈善传统。更重要的是,中国地
方社会和普通民众对基督教医疗传教士的接纳和善待,深刻影响到这些随不平等条约而强行闯入的西方人对中国社会的重新认识和文化反省。
关键词 中外交往 基督教 医疗传教士 西方近代医学 地方社会

W hy did They Love China? ChristianM edicalM issionaries and Local
Society, 1835―1911

In the records ofChristian medical missionaries in modern China, they
frequently note that though they were excluded by the local gentry and
officials when they first arrived in a location, they also received
enthusiastic assistance from some commoners. As their familiarity and
understanding increased, they could live in harmony with local Chinese
society and ordinary people, and even became mutually assisting parts
of the neighborhood. Furthermore, because the social living conditions
that Christian medical missionaries enjoyed in China were superior to
what they had in Western countries, and because medicine was highly
respected and generously supported, many of them began to“love
China.”In this sense, the success of Christian medical missionaries in
China was not just due to the therapeutic superiority of modern
Western medicine and the dedication of the missionaries themselves,
but also due to the modesty and good will of ordinary people and the
charitable traditions of China’s deeply customary local society. More
importantly, the acceptance of Christian medical missionaries by
ordinary people and Chinese local society, and the good treatment the
missionaries received from them deeply affected the ways in which
these Westerners―who had forcibly entered China in the wake of the
unequal treaties―re-evaluated Chinese society and reflected on Chinese
culture.

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